Test 1 Study Guide
What is epistemology, metaphysics, ethics?
Thales: first philosopher; father of natural philosophy; water as a first principle. http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Thales.html
The ‘Apology‘ : Socrates accusers: Meletus and Aristophanes’ (‘The Clouds‘); the Delphic Oracle; Sophists; corrupting the youth and impiety; Socrates Divine Mission; gadfly; ‘the unexamined life in not worth living’; dialectical (Socratic) method; the ‘problem of Socrates’; ‘Socratic Ignorance’. Free meals;
Socratic themes in the Apology: the right to expression (religion and thought); the right to teach.
The ‘Crito’: Socrates’ reasons for not escaping. The Socratic conception of the soul as that higher part of man that is virtue: justice. Socratic non-violence: ‘For this opinion has never been held and never will be held by any number of persons … : do no harm’. The Laws personified. Socratic ‘social contract.’
Other things to know: hemlock; stonecutter; Socrates: the first ethicist; the Socratic turn; Midwife;
The Euthyphro: What is the Euthyphro dilemma? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YBX162owQf0 Who is Euthyphro?
The Republic: Smile of the sun, divided line, and the cave; Forms; Sun; The Good; visible world as change/opinion; intelligible world as eternal/knowledge. Rationalism.
Other things to know: Academy; 3 classes of man for the ideal city and their virtues: (philosopher) wisdom, (soldier) courage, (worker) temperance: all together provides a city with Justice.
Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics: virtue ethics; habit; interior and exterior goods; Eudaimonia; to reason excellently; the golden mean; justice. 4 causes: http://simplyphilosophy.org/philosophy/classical-greek-philosophy/aristotle/the-four-causes/
Other things to know: taught Alexander the Great; Lyceum; father of logic and biology; empiricist; Athens accused him of impiety; he rejected Plato’s theory of forms. Vocal critic of hedonism.
Epicurus: Principle Doctrines and Letter to Menoeceus; atomist; four part cure: don’t fear the gods; don’t fear death; don’t fear what is easy to get (food & shelter); don’t fear pain (if great, you’ll die, if not, you’ll live). Epicurus paradox: one of the first accounts of the problem of evil (theodicy): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epicurus#Epicurean_paradox ; ataraxia; The Garden; Prudence (as self-sufficiency): http://societyofepicurus.com/self-sufficiency-as-a-product-of-prudence/ Static and dynamic pleasure: http://www.iep.utm.edu/epicur/#SH5b ; ‘pleasure as the absence of pain.’ He believed that atoms that swerve create our freewill, contrary to Democritus, who Epicurus studied.
st. anselm: bishop of canterbury, formally ended slave trade in england during his reign, inventor of the ontological argument, greatest conceivable being, rationalism, father of scholasticism. the four attributes of god: all: knowing, present, good and powerful.
st. thomas aquinas: what are his ‘five ways’, used empiricism in his five ways, most famous scholastic thinker, the five ways, taken together, incorporate the four attributes of god. in making these empirical arguments, aquinas ushered in an age of science.
St. Thomas Aquinas (c.1225–1274) presented several versions of the cosmological argument in his Summa Theologica, and of the teleological argument in his Summa Contra Gentiles. He presented the ontological argument, but rejected it in favor of proofs that invoke cause and effect alone. His quinque viae (“five ways”) in those books attempted to prove the existence of God in different ways, including (as way #5) the goal-directed actions seen in nature.
this guide is complete